Throughout my experience as an amateur game designer and game jam organizer, I’ve found some good sources for cheap but good supplies online. You can buy fancy blank tiles and tokens and things, but they’re not ideal for initial prototypes because using notecards is so much cheaper and simpler.
I love these buckets of plastic cubes in 10 colors, the colors of which happen to match pretty closely the colors in an 8-pack of Sharpies:
1000 cubes: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000F8VB4G/
500 cubes: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000QDTVFG/
400 cheap 6-sided dice in 4 colors: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B002MQIRAU/
250 transparent counters in 4 colors: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00004WKPM/
24 pawns in 6 colors: http://www.amazon.com/Set-of-Assorted-1-Pawns/dp/B001NH0626
Goodwill or other thrift stores are a great source for cheap poker chips. You can also cannibalize the parts from other easily found games in thrift shops, like Risk (cubes, tiny figurines, or numeric counters depending on the edition), Scrabble (blank wood tiles!), or random games that have a bunch of dice.
A lot of people are inspired by Settlers of Catan and want to use hex tiles for their games. A cheaper alternative is to use squares or rectangles (i.e. notecards), which can be offset or rotated to be functionally the same as hexagons. See http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~amitp/game-programming/grids/#derivation and http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/InterpretingASquareGridAsAHexagonalGrid/ for additional explanation of how you can interpret a grid of squares as a grid of hexagons.
Instead of playing cards, consider using notecards in card sleeves. Or slips of paper in front of cards you already have many of (e.g. land cards from Magic the Gathering) in card sleeves.
After iterating on a design using notecards instead of playing cards, I do like upgrading to these blank cards for easier shuffling and playtesting: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1572814993/
Craft stores and educational supply stores can be a good source for unique bits.
For other, fancier prototype supplies like blank tiles, blank tokens, and blank dice+stickers, I like Print and Play Productions.
The Game Crafter also has a selection of fancier prototype supplies.
I’ve focused on what’s available in the US, but in Europe Spiel Material is a good source for all sorts of game components.
Since 2006, I have designed board games on an amateur basis. The majority of these designs were experiments that have since been discarded, but those that are in later phases of development or are notable for some other reason will be posted here.
Paper Game Jams
Since January 2014, I have organized and facilitated twice-yearly (summer and winter) paper game design jams for alumnae/i and current students of my alma mater, Reed College. Over the course of 24-48 hours, we brainstorm ideas and iterate on game designs by creating, playtesting, and revising prototypes. After each jam, at least a few participants have created something compelling enough to continue developing.
Candy Factory – I started designing Candy Factory in the August 2014 Reed Game Jam, and have been iterating on the prototype and design document ever since. It is a game of building an efficient machine to transform a pool of dice and produce the most points.
Speculation – I made Speculation for MITx 11.126x, Introduction to Game Design, in the winter of 2014. My goal was to create a simplistic, fast-paced, pure share-buying game in the vein of 18XX or Rolling Stock but without any company operation mechanics.
The Barbers – I started developing The Barbers in August 2013 during the first Reed Game Jam, but have since abandoned it. Although it does not seem like an interesting game to me, I do want to reuse its unique customer demand mechanic at some point in the future.
I’ve taught a couple classes to talented and gifted youth using board games. But never in a context in which I could assign homework. Which is a shame, because I have an idea for what I think would be a wonderful class!
This class would integrate one of my favorite instructional aids, playing historic and strategic board games (in this case A Brief History of the World), with independent research, creative writing, and public speaking. I think drawing on such diverse activities and intelligences in a single class would be a highly productive, stimulating, and exciting experience for students. Class time would be spent in several ways: 1) an introduction to history as a varied subject beyond a series of events and dates, including the notion of embedded historians using examples like Thucydides and Homer as well as more contemporary historians. 2) Playing games! 3) Presenting research and discussing how it relates to what happens in the game. Homework would include independent research on the kingdoms, empires, and nations students have played as within the game, as well as writing, either purely historical or historical fiction, on some aspect of the history of that kingdom/empire/nation.
I did use A Brief History of the World in a week-long class for Saturday Academy‘s week-long summer camp in 2011. Although I couldn’t assign any homework, I did use a watered-down version of this curriculum by offering the option for students to do some research and present it to the rest of the class each day. Although it wasn’t as deep as I would expect from a longer course, it did add some additional detail to the events students were playing through in the game.
By playing A Brief History of the World, students would start to see history as not merely a sequence of events and dates, but as an interaction of systems. By making decisions within the game, they will come to understand some of the forces that influenced historical actors.
Playing the game would be complemented by their own research on the kingdoms, empires, or nations they represented in the game. Depending on the age level, this research would be supported by providing research material, an in-school trip to the library, discussions with librarians, or other research resources. Because board games are necessarily abstracted and simplified versions of reality, this historical research would add depth to the class as students relate it to the events that happen during the game. They would also cultivate skills like using primary and secondary sources for research, keeping track of their sources and collected information, and evaluating sources.
After being introduced to a range of historical texts, including those written by the people living through the events they’re writing about, as well as those on topics other than typical wars and nations, students would write their own histories (or historical fictions) informed by their research. In addition to expository and narrative writing, they would develop their ability to synthesize, summarize, connect, and creatively deploy disparate information from varied sources.
At the conclusion of the game, students would select one of their researched histories to expand into a presentation to deliver to the class. Because public speaking is so frequently feared, this practice would help students become more confident and engaging presenters.
On five consecutive Fridays for 1.5 hours each, I taught this class for the first time in January/February of 2010 to 6th and 7th graders at Laurelhurst School in Portland, OR through Saturday Academy‘s in-school LEAP program. In this class I created for 6th-8th graders (but realistically up to 12th or beyond), students work in pairs, playing a variety of board games featuring various economic mechanisms, starting with simpler games like Settlers of Catan and advancing to more complex, like Wealth of Nations. They manage their scarce resources, experience first-hand the importance of capital investment and development, and alter their plans as supply and demand fluctuate.
All images are from BoardGameGeek and are copyright their creators.
Learning and Class Materials
Instead of learning economics through equations and graphs out of textbooks, students engage with simulations of economic mechanisms first-hand. Supply-and-demand affect their production and profits as they struggle to maximize their gains. Students reap the long-term rewards of their earlier capital investments if they have speculated accurately and invested shrewdly. Through this process, they develop a deeper appreciation and experiential understanding of abstract economic principles.
Each class, I provide my students with a handout of some economic concepts with brief definitions (all of which are available in the downloads section). As they play, I prompt them to relate their game-playing and decision-making to these handouts, and vice-versa. I also ask more general questions to get them to think critically about their decisions, like “Why did you choose to..?” and “What goal are you trying to accomplish by..?” Students creatively connect their experience of playing the game to their pre-existing knowledge, as well as to their handouts, to create new knowledge.
Economic concepts in each game (see the handouts in the downloads section for details):
Settlers of Catan
- Raw Materials
- Supply and Demand
- Opportunity Cost
- Expected Value
- Common Value Auction
- Winner’s Curse
- Bid Shading
- Path Dependency
Wealth of Nations
- Marginal Cost
- Economy of Scale
- Raw Materials
- Supply and Demand
- Opportunity Cost
Settlers of Catan
My students played three games over the course of five sessions. Two days were spent playing Settlers of Catan twice, one day to Modern Art, and two days playing one game of Wealth of Nations. In Settlers of Catan, players build settlements, roads, and cities with resources that they produce and acquire from trading with each other. What they produce depends on where they build their settlements. In Modern Art, players speculate on the art market as they auction and purchase paintings. In Wealth of Nations, players develop their nation’s industries and trade crucial resources with each other.
Wealth of Nations
Both Saturday Academy and I like finding out what students thought of my class, though I’d prefer not to use a survey. Three students liked Modern Art the most, three others Wealth of Nations, and the remainder named Settlers as their favorite game played during the class. All students self-reported on a last-day survey that they a) are more interested in the topic of the class, b) know more about the topic than when before the class, and c) would recommend the class to their friends. And they all described me as “good” or “excellent.” Awwww. Of course, they knew that I would be seeing their surveys, which is guaranteed to bias their responses. But Saturday Academy constructed the survey, not I!
Room for Improvement
Next time, I would like to switch out Modern Art for another game. Of the three, it has the least similarities to the other two, so provides less opportunity for building on what students learned while playing other games. Instead of touching on a broad range of concepts, I would rather go more in-depth with a smaller number, building on their understanding as the class progresses. Each handout would include less concepts on it—I think the amount this time was a little overwhelming for some students. Perhaps next time I’ll use Power Grid or Automobile.
“Railroad Tycoons” is the new name of the class I have taught to gifted students entering 4th-6th grades over the summer in Worlds of Wisdom & Wonder and Summer Wonders, two programs through The Center for Gifted in Illinois. The same class is currently being taught by me in Portland, OR through Saturday Academy. Although the class originated as a splinter from a broader board game-centric class created by Christopher Freeman, mathematics teacher at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, I created the specific materials (except the games themselves) for this class.
The class meets for 50 minutes a day for two weeks, during which students play one of two railroad board games, Empire Builder or EuroRails, both of which are published by Mayfair Games. Both games are played by drawing track on the board, which is divided like a grid, and delivering loads of goods from cities in which they are available to cities which have a demand for them. The only significant difference between the two games is the geographical area they cover: North America and Europe, respectively. My students work in teams of two, optimally with four teams playing each game.
Learning through activity, in this case play, can be greatly meaningful. When I was in 6th-11th grade, I attended a similar program (also through The Center for Gifted) that has had a profound effect on my life. It further kindled my desire for intellectual exploration and to learn and discover ideas, as well as forming the basis for my still-developing theoretical perspectives on learning and semiotics. By actively encountering the cities of North America and Europe, my students learn more permanently not only where these cities are, but what goods they export and how they might interact economically with other cities. They also learn how the availability of goods and geographic considerations like mountains have affected the growth of railroad systems. More generally applicable, they work together with their teammate, effectively communicate their ideas, and cultivate an ability to plan for the long term.
Beside the board game itself, which includes reference sheets listing all the cities and where each good is available, each team records all of their plans on a handout that I have adapted from Christopher Freeman’s original after observing how my students interact with it. This not only facilitates my students’ planning and day-to-day continuity, but helps me write their evaluations at the end of the session. You can view this record sheet here. All of the materials I’ve created for this class are available in the downloads section, and the games are available from Mayfair (educational discounts apply).
In addition to this record keeping sheet, my students fill out a self-evaluation form before I write my evaluations. They are asked to describe at least one of each of the following: a correct decision they made, a mistake and what they learned from it, a good decision on the part of another team, and a general piece of advice to share with a new player. This self-evaluation helps me know what they actually learned from their experience playing the game, and helps them wrap up their two-week experience.
Other than classroom management and helping to create an exciting, safe environment in which to explore the games, I am responsible for writing three letters primarily targeted at my students’ parents. On the first day, each student receives a handout describing the class to give to their parents. On the last, they receive a handout recapping the class and detailing ways to extend their classroom experience, in this case where they can buy the games they played and other recommended board game publishers (all of which are listed in the sidebar under ‘Board Games’). Finally, my evaluations of the students, which includes 4+ sentences detailing each of their specific personal achievements, are mailed home after the final day of class.